Cinfa Biotech, the biosimilars specialists of the Cinfa Group, reviewed pegfilgrastim biosimilar approaches to treat chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. However, there is also strong medical need for affordable treatment options in supportive cancer care. Pegfilgrastim, a PEGylated form of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor G-CSF analogue filgrastim, is a vital instrument in cancer care that decreases the risk of febrile neutropenia FN thereby limiting dose-reductions or delays in chemotherapy.
Building an Inclusive Definition of E-Learning: Like society, the concept of e-learning is subject to constant change. In addition, it is difficult to come up with a single definition of e-learning that would be accepted by the majority of the scientific community.
The different understandings of e-learning are conditioned by particular professional approaches and interests. An international project, based on the participation of experts around the world, was undertaken to agree on a definition of e-learning. To this end, two main research activities were carried out.
First, an extensive review was conducted of the literature on the concept of e-learning, drawing from peer-reviewed journals, specialised web pages, and books. Second, a Delphi survey was sent out to gather the opinions of recognised experts in the field of education and technology regarding the concept of e-learning with a view to reaching a final consensus.
This paper presents the outcomes of the project, which has resulted in an inclusive definition of e-learning subject to a high degree of consensus that will provide a useful conceptual framework to further identify the different models in which e-learning is developed and practiced.
E-learning; definition; distance education; technology-enhanced education Introduction In recent decades, the use of information and communication technologies ICT for educational purposes has increased, and the spread of network technologies has caused e-learning practices to evolve significantly Kahiigi et al.
However, any definition of e-learning must settle the issue of what is and what is not e-learning Guri-Rosenbilt, Not only have different concepts been attributed to e-learning, but the term has also been substituted by others, such as computer-based learning, technology-based training, and computer-based training, which actually predate the first mention of e-learning in the mids Friesen, or the more recent online learning.
Moreover, some people confuse the concept of e-learning with the concepts of a virtual campus or online courses, which can be part of the e-learning universe but do not sufficiently define it.
The evolution of distance education, as a result of new technologies and the contributions of computer scientists to the field of education along with the conceptualisation of education as a lifelong process, poses a major challenge for educational institutions: From simple occasional use of ICT to reinforce face-to-face teaching and learning to the use of virtual environments for courses conducted completely online according to a variety of educational models, the incorporation of ICT into the learning process is being achieved from very different perspectives and through an extensive range of formulas, albeit with one common denominator: The discussion of the definition and practices of e-learning focuses on the intersection of education, teaching, and learning with ICT Friesen, It is undoubtedly preceded by two other disciplines: Both have significantly contributed to the intensive use of ICT for educational purposes, but neither can be strictly equated with e-learning.
E-learning could also be considered a natural evolution of distance learning, which has always taken advantage of the latest tools to emerge in the context of technologies for structuring education. In fact, some authors consider e-learning to be a new generation of distance education, even as they point to significant differences between the two and highlight a key starting point: However, the suspicion that different meanings or definitions of e-learning are conditioned by particular professional approaches and, more importantly, by particular individual or corporate interests underscores the need to analyse this field of knowledge.
In the educational sciences, studies from different knowledge areas can also be found that aim to define concepts used with different meanings by the scientific community Allen, ; Baker, ; Garavan, ; Stanovich, ; Wright, These studies offer proof that there has, since the very emergence of distance education, been a need to create a common frame of reference for it.
An agreement on how to define e-learning could help research and researchers go forward in identifying models and practices for applying e-learning and in determining the key factors for better and more effective use of this type of teaching and learning: The challenge of finding a single, inclusive definition of e-learning is the starting point for this study.
As Renold and Barterp. Two main research activities were carried out to achieve this aim. An extensive literature review: Indexed and peer-reviewed journals, government reports, web pages, and books were considered and analysed.
The main objective of this activity was to collect the available definitions of e-learning in order to compare and categorise them according to their main perspective and focus. Online questionnaires were sent to recognised experts in the field of education and ICT in order to determine their perceptions of and beliefs regarding e-learning with a view to reaching a final consensus and creating an inclusive definition.
The entirety of this second research activity was monitored and evaluated by educational research methodology experts from the Netherlands, Spain, and Canada.
Literature Review A literature review is understood as a description of the relevant literature on a particular field or topic University of Canberra, The topics used for this review were e-learning and definition, and the search was performed in the field of education and ICT.Discussion questions: Compare and contrast two of these six perspectives on altruism and aggression: biological, cultural, personal, situational, affective, and cognitive.
According to your two chosen perspectives, why do people behave in an altruistic or aggressive manner? Strategic Communications: International Perspectives 22 July – 2 August, Page 2 of 32 All sessions meet at La Maison Française in Buell Hall unless noted otherwise.
North South University is the first private university of Bangladesh, It was established in Approved by the University Grants Commission (UGC) of Bangladesh.
Communicating with those who come from different perspectives than ourselves is a vital project as we strive to learn from and share what we have learned with others. Request PDF on ResearchGate | Communications Strategy?
Strategy communication? Integrating different perspectives | Discussion of the . COM Four Perspectives on Communication 10/07/14 Week 1 Discussion 2 Our text discusses four different theoretical perspectives on communication.
Consider each of these perspectives and answer the questions below about these perspectives. Respond to at least two of your fellow students’ postings by Day 7. (You must create one initial %(15).