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History of television Video technology was first developed for mechanical television systems, which were quickly replaced by cathode ray tube CRT television systems, but several new technologies for video display devices have since been invented.
Video was originally exclusively a live technology.
Charles Ginsburg led an Ampex research team developing one of the first practical video tape recorder VTR. In the first video tape recorder captured live images from television cameras by converting the camera's electrical impulses and saving the information onto magnetic video tape.
After the invention of the DVD in and Blu-ray Disc insales of videotape and recording equipment plummeted. Advances in computer technology allows even inexpensive personal computers and smartphones to capture, store, edit and transmit digital video, further reducing the cost of video production, allowing program-makers and broadcasters to move to tapeless production.
The advent of digital broadcasting and the subsequent digital television transition is in the process of relegating analog video to the status of a legacy technology in most parts of the world. As of [update]with the increasing use of high-resolution video cameras with improved dynamic range and color gamutsand high-dynamic-range digital intermediate data formats with improved color depthmodern digital video technology is converging with digital film technology.
The minimum frame rate In the video achieve a comfortable illusion of a moving image is about sixteen frames per second.
In progressive scan systems, each refresh period updates all scan lines in each frame in sequence. When displaying a natively progressive broadcast or recorded signal, the result is optimum spatial resolution of both In the video stationary and moving parts of the image.
Interlacing was invented as a way to reduce flicker in early mechanical and CRT video displays without increasing the number of complete frames per second. Interlacing retains detail while requiring lower bandwidth compared to progressive scanning.
In interlaced video, the horizontal scan lines of each complete frame are treated as if numbered consecutively, and captured as two fields: Analog display devices reproduce each frame, effectively doubling the frame rate as far as perceptible overall flicker is concerned.
When the image capture device acquires the fields one at a time, rather than dividing up a complete frame after it is captured, the frame rate for motion is effectively doubled as well, resulting in smoother, more lifelike reproduction of rapidly moving parts of the image when viewed on an interlaced CRT display.
Abbreviated video resolution specifications often include an i to indicate interlacing. For example, PAL video format is often described as i50, where indicates the total number of horizontal scan lines, i indicates interlacing, and 50 indicates 50 fields half-frames per second.
When displaying a natively interlaced signal on a progressive scan device, overall spatial resolution is degraded by simple line doubling —artifacts such as flickering or "comb" effects in moving parts of the image which appear unless special signal processing eliminates them.
A procedure known as deinterlacing can optimize the display of an interlaced video signal from an analog, DVD or satellite source on a progressive scan device such as an LCD televisiondigital video projector or plasma panel.
Deinterlacing cannot, however, produce video quality that is equivalent to true progressive scan source material. Aspect ratio Comparison of common cinematography and traditional television green aspect ratios Aspect ratio describes the proportional relationship between the width and height of video screens and video picture elements.
All popular video formats are rectangularand so can be described by a ratio between width and height. The ratio width to height for a traditional television screen is 4: High definition televisions use an aspect ratio of Pixels on computer monitors are usually square, but pixels used in digital video often have non-square aspect ratios, such as those used in the PAL and NTSC variants of the CCIR digital video standard, and the corresponding anamorphic widescreen formats.
The by pixel raster uses thin pixels on a 4: The popularity of viewing video on mobile phones has led to the growth of vertical video. There are several such representations in common use: The number of distinct colors a pixel can represent depends on color depth expressed in the number of bits per pixel.
A common way to reduce the amount of data required in digital video is by chroma subsampling e. Because the human eye is less sensitive to details in color than brightness, the luminance data for all pixels is maintained, while the chrominance data is averaged for a number of pixels in a block and that same value is used for all of them.
This process does not reduce the number of possible color values that can be displayed, but it reduces the number of distinct points at which the color changes. Video quality Video quality can be measured with formal metrics like Peak signal-to-noise ratio PSNR or through subjective video quality assessment using expert observation.
In DSIS, each expert views an unimpaired reference video followed by an impaired version of the same video. The expert then rates the impaired video using a scale ranging from "impairments are imperceptible" to "impairments are very annoying".
Video compression method digital only Main article: Video compression Uncompressed video delivers maximum quality, but with a very high data rate. A variety of methods are used to compress video streams, with the most effective ones using a group of pictures GOP to reduce spatial and temporal redundancy.See Keith Urban's updated "dancer's version" of his video for "The Fighter," a duet with Carrie Underwood off Urban's 'Ripcord' album.
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