A successful organizational structure defines each employee's job and how it fits within the overall system. This structuring provides a company with a visual representation of how it is shaped and how it can best move forward in achieving its goals. Organizational structures are normally illustrated in some sort of chart or diagram.
Research has found that other norms may exist which are dependent upon factors such as age or personality Huseman, et. The Equity Sensitivity Construct describes a spectrum of varying sensitivities to equity and inequity Huseman, et. The idea of equity sensitivity determines the extent to which an individual will tolerate inequity.
Equity sensitives will experience distress when faced with either type of inequity: Benevolents will experience distress and possibly guilt when they are in a situation of over-reward. Entitleds experience distress when in an equitable or under-reward situation.
The Equity Sensitivity Construct is useful to understanding equity theory and individual behavior. However, the three categories of equity sensitivity do not account for all individual differences in preferences and behavior. Individuals might show different equity sensitivities in different contexts Huseman, et.
For example, an individual might be equity sensitive in their personal relationships, preferring an equitable balance or they might be an entitled at work and feel comfortable with over-reward.
Specifically, there are differences in preference for extrinsic tangible outcomes versus intrinsic outcomes Miles, et. A specific example of this is in the realm of pay: Conversely, benevolents rate extrinsic outcomes lower in preference and show a stronger preference for intrinsic outcomes Miles, et.
It is possible that some of these differences can be attributed to other factors such as age. Younger workers and older workers value different things and the meaning of work varies by age Smith, With this is mind, it is possible that age, or other external factors, might play a part in which equity sensitivity group an individual is likely to be in.
Where does Perceived Inequity Come From? According to equity theory, perceived inequity comes from social comparisons Adams, A person to whom we compare ourselves to is called the Comparison Other. Comparison Other There are several factors that an employee can use in determining the "comparison other.
Self-inside — their experience versus someone else in their present company Self-outside — their experience they had in another organization Other-inside — another co-worker's experience inside their present company Other-outside — an individual's experience in another organization For example, a newly hired employee would choose "self-outside" since they would not have adequate experiences to compare in their current place of employment, whereas someone with a longer length of service would choose "self-inside".
Equity Theory states that people strive hard to achieve and maintain a state of equity or fairness in order to maintain internal, psychological balance Adams, However, when ratios are different, a state of inequity exists, and employees will be motivated to bring it back into balance.
With both types of inequity, under and overpayment, the amount of inequity a person feels is proportional to the size of the difference between this person's ratio and their comparison other. Examples of Inequity Underpayment Inequity: As of current, Sarah has been with Corporation X for 3 years and is in line to move into a management position within the next six months.
About three months ago, Corporation X hired another team member in the HR department to assist Sarah in her daily duties as they were getting too much for one person. One day at lunch Alison reveals her salary to Sarah and tells her that she is surprised a company would pay her that salary with no experience in HR.
She is immediately leaded to feeling under-compensated considering she does most of the work and Alison just helps. Sarah realizes that she needs to make Alison accountable for more projects so her inputs match her outputs.
One day at lunch Alison reveals her salary to Sarah and tells her that she is surprised a company would pay her that salary starting out in their HR department even though she has experience elsewhere.
Sarah realizes that she makes a few more dollars than Alison.
She is immediately lead to feeling overcompensated considering she does most of the same work Alison does and gets paid more. Sarah realizes that she needs to be accountable for a few more things than Alison so her inputs match her outputs.
Research on Equity Theory In the four decades since John Stacey Adams pioneered the Equity Theory of motivation, an extensive amount of research has been conducted testing the validity of this theory.Theory of planned behavior. UTAUT. Unified theory of acceptance and use of technology.
Similarly, these authors argue that “firm size,” “global scope,” and “financial resources” are the pertinent factors that should be studied to understand how the organizational context affects the adoption of .
1 Organizational Change and Redesign Organizational change is pervasive today, as organizations struggle to adapt or face decline in the volatile environments of a global economic and political world.
Organization Development and Change Organizational development and change is devoted to research and development of theory on all forms of organization change. The field focuses on the processes and outcomes of organization change at the individual, group, and organizational levels using multiple methods and perspectives.
Chapter 6: Patrol Goals and Objectives. STUDY. PLAY. What does "CALEA" stand for? scope and causes of crime and the means by which a crime is committed. What can a PD do to have a desired effect on accident rates and driver behavior?
have a systematic and aggressive program of . Scope of Oraganizational Behavior Essay values, ethics, authority, rapport, hypnosis, persuasion, coercion and/or genetics. The behavior of people (and other organisms or even mechanisms) falls within a range with some behavior being common, some unusual, some acceptable, and some outside acceptable limits.
Organizational change management (OCM) is a framework for managing the effect of new business processes, changes in organizational structure or cultural changes within an enterprise. Simply put, OCM addresses the people side of change management.